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Phytotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, Carvacrol, and Thymol in Plant Bioassays

Pinheiro, Patricia Fontes, Costa, Adilson Vidal, Alves, Thammyres de Assis, Galter, lasmini Nicoli, Pinheiro, Carlos Alexandre, Pereira, Alexandre Fontes, Oliveira, Carlos Magno Ramos, Fontes, Milene Miranda Praca
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.41 pp. 8981-8990
Lactuca sativa, Plectranthus amboinicus, Sorghum bicolor, bioassays, biopesticides, carvacrol, cell cycle, chemotypes, cytotoxicity, essential oils, flame ionization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, germination, leaves, meristems, oils, phytotoxicity, thymol
The essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated on the germination and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and in acting on the cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. The main component found in the oil by analysis in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detection was carvacrol (88.61% in area). At a concentration of 0.120% (w v–1), the oil and its chemotypes retarded or inhibited the germination and decreased root and aerial growth in monocot and dicot species used in the bioassays. In addition, all substances caused changes in the cell cycle of the meristematic cells of L. sativa, with chromosomal alterations occurring from the 0.015% (w v–1) concentration. The essential oil of P. amboinicus, carvacrol, and thymol have potential for use as bioherbicides.