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Effects of rearing temperature and dietary short‐chain fructooligosaccharides supplementation on allochthonous gut microbiota, digestive enzymes activities and intestine health of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) juveniles

Guerreiro, I., Enes, P., Rodiles, A., Merrifield, D., Oliva‐Teles, A.
Aquaculture nutrition 2016 v.22 no.3 pp. 631-642
Scophthalmus maximus, alpha-amylase, carboxylic ester hydrolases, digestion, environmental factors, enzyme activity, foregut, fructooligosaccharides, hindgut, intestinal microorganisms, intestines, juveniles, microbiome, prebiotics, proteinases, rearing, temperature, turbot
The gut microbiomes of fish play important roles in host development, digestion and health. Evidence suggests that abiotic factors, such as diet and rearing temperature, could affect fish gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of dietary short‐chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on turbot intestinal health, microbiota and digestive enzymes was investigated at two rearing temperatures: 15 and 20 °C. Four practical diets were supplemented with scFOS at 0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg⁻¹. scFOS did not affect fish performance. PCR‐DGGE did not show differences in bacterial profiles between dietary treatments; however, the number of operational taxonomic units, richness and diversity were higher at 20 °C. Enzyme activities in the foregut were not affected by rearing temperature, while in the hindgut, enzyme activities were higher at 15 °C. Total alkaline protease, α‐amylase and lipase activities in the foregut were higher in fish fed 20 g kg⁻¹ scFOS. Prebiotic supplementation had no effect on hindgut α‐amylase activity, while lipase activity of fish reared at 20 °C was higher in fish fed diet with 5 g kg⁻¹ scFOS. No differences were observed in intestinal morphology. This was the first study to simultaneously evaluate the effect of dietary prebiotic level and rearing temperature on fish intestinal microbiota and health.