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Impact of Anions, Cations, and pH on Manganese Accumulation and Toxicity in the Green Alga Scenedesmus quadricauda
- Švec, Pavel, Kováčik, Jozef, Hedbavný, Josef, Babula, Petr, Rotková, Gabriela, Klejdus, Bořivoj
- Water, air, and soil pollution 2016 v.227 no.5 pp. 161
- Scenedesmus quadricauda, acridine orange, anions, ascorbate peroxidase, calcium, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulfate, catalase, cations, enzyme activity, fluorescence microscopy, glutathione, manganese, manganese chloride, pH, plasma membrane, potassium, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, staining, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
- Accumulation of divalent manganese (Mn) and its toxicity in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied at circumneutral pH (6.5). A comparison of two applied concentrations (10 or 100 μM) of MnCl₂, MnSO₄, and Mn(NO₃)₂ indicated that mainly sulfate evoked higher Mn accumulation. On the other hand, nitrate rather depleted antioxidative enzyme activities (APX, CAT, SOD), leading to an increase in ROS formation as proven by fluorescence microscopy. Subsequent experiments revealed that increase in pH (from 4.5 to 9.5) increased also Mn content but typically depleted amounts of reduced glutathione and phytochelatin 2. We also measured the size of particles formed from the manganese salts at pH 9.5. Competitive experiment between Ca/K salts (CaCl₂, CaSO₄, Ca(NO₃)₂, KCl, K₂SO₄, KNO₃) and Mn (as Mn sulfate) showed a negative relation between Ca and Mn amount but KNO₃ stimulated Mn accumulation. Microscopy revealed that mainly K salts elevated plasma membrane damage (Acridine orange staining). Data indicate that not only pH but also accompanying anion affects Mn accumulation and that Ca salts may affect Mn toxicity.