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Barium chloride induces redox status unbalance, upregulates cytokine genes expression and confers hepatotoxicity in rats—alleviation by pomegranate peel

Elwej, Awatef, Grojja, Yousri, Ghorbel, Imen, Boudawara, Ons, Jarraya, Raoudha, Boudawara, Tahia, Zeghal, Najiba
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.8 pp. 7559-7571
adults, advanced oxidation protein products, alanine transaminase, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, aspartate transaminase, barium, catalase, diet, drinking water, gallic acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase, gene expression, gene expression regulation, glutathione peroxidase, hepatotoxicity, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase, lipids, liver, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, pomegranates, protective effect, quercetin, quercitrin, rats, syringic acid, thiols, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
The present study was performed to establish the therapeutic efficacy of pomegranate peel against barium chloride induced liver injury. Adult rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: group I, serving as controls, received distilled water; group II received by their drinking water 67 ppm of BaCl₂; group III received both 67 ppm of BaCl₂ by the same way than group II and 5 % of pomegranate peel (PP) via diet; group IV received 5 % of PP. Analysis by HPLC/MS of PP showed its rich composition in flavonoids such as gallic acid, castalin, hyperin, quercitrin, syringic acid, and quercetin. The protective effects of pomegranate peel against hepatotoxicity induced by barium chloride were assessed using biochemical parameters and histological studies. Exposure of rats to barium caused oxidative stress in the liver as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), H₂O₂ and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) activities, a decrease in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, glutathion (GSH), non-protein thiol (NPSH), vitamin C levels, and Mn-SOD gene expression. Liver total MT levels, MT-1, and MT-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes expression like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased. Pomegranate peel, supplemented in the diet of barium-treated rats, showed an improvement of all the parameters indicated above.The present work provided ethnopharmacological relevance of pomegranate peel against the toxic effects of barium, suggesting its beneficial role as a potential antioxidant.