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Evaluation of Direct Phloroglucinolysis and Colorimetric Depolymerization Assays and Their Applicability for Determining Condensed Tannins in Grape Marc
- Hixson, Josh L., Bindon, Keren A., Smith, Paul A.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.45 pp. 9954-9962
- acetone, acidification, cell walls, color, colorimetry, correlation, depolymerization, grape pomace, grapes, pH, proanthocyanidins, tannins
- To determine the optimum methods for determining condensed tannin (CT) content in grape marc, butanol-hydrochloric acid assays and phloroglucinolysis were adapted for use, applied to a range of grape marc types, and the methods compared. Porter’s assay (butanol-HCl) was found to give unreliable results due to nonlinear color responses to grape skin and seed tannin concentrations, whereas the modification to include acetone (Grabber’s assay) overcame this. Differences between skin and seed tannin responses highlighted the need to adequately select the correct grape tannin standard, and the formation of pH-dependent color was accounted for through acidification of blank samples. For phloroglucinolysis, the inability to remove highly bound tannins from cell wall material was highlighted, although a measure of tannins remaining post-phloroglucinolysis (Grabber’s assay) showed a trend with the level of exposure to oxidative storage or processing conditions. The comparison of CT concentrations from phloroglucinolysis and Grabber’s assay gave poor correlation coefficients.