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In Vitro Nematicidal Activity of Aryl Hydrazones and Comparative GC-MS Metabolomics Analysis

Eloh, Kodjo, Demurtas, Monica, Deplano, Alessandro, Mfopa, Alvine Ngoutane, Murgia, Antonio, Maxia, Andrea, Onnis, Valentina, Caboni, Pierluigi
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.45 pp. 9970-9976
Meloidogyne incognita, ammonia, dodecanoic acid, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hydroxybenzaldehyde, mechanism of action, metabolomics, monoacylglycerols, nematicidal properties, palmitic acid, root-knot nematodes, stearic acid, toxicity
A series of aryl hydrazones were synthesized and in vitro assayed for their activity on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The phenylhydrazones of thiophene-2-carboxyaldehyde 5, 3-methyl-2-thiophenecarboxyaldehyde, 6, and salicylaldehyde, 2, were the most potent with EC50/48h values of 16.6 ± 2.2, 23.2 ± 2.7, and 24.3 ± 1.4 mg/L, respectively. A GC-MS metabolomics analysis, after in vitro nematode treatment with hydrazone 6 at 100 mg/L for 12 h, revealed elevated levels of fatty acids such as lauric acid, stearic acid, 2-octenoic acid, and palmitic acid. Whereas control samples showed the highest levels of monoacylglycerols such as monostearin and 2-monostearin, surprisingly, 2 h after treatment with hydrazone 6, nematodes excreted 3 times the levels of ammonia eliminated in the same conditions by controls. Thus, phenylhydrazones may represent a good scaffold in the discovery and synthesis of new nematicidal compounds, and a metabolomics approach may be helpful in understanding their mechanisms of toxicity and mode of action.