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Development of molecular markers for authentication of the medicinal plant species Patrinia by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multiplex-PCR

Moon, Byeong Cheol, Lee, Young Mi, Kim, Wook Jin, Ji, Yunui, Kang, Young Min, Choi, Goya
Horticulture, environment and biotechnology 2016 v.57 no.2 pp. 182-190
DNA fragmentation, DNA primers, Patrinia villosa, adulterated products, genetic markers, herbal medicines, medicinal plants, quality control, random amplified polymorphic DNA technique
The authentication of components from plant species is vital for the quality control and standardization of herbal medicines. Due to morphological similarities when dried, it is very difficult to distinguish authentic medicinal plants Patrinia villosa and P. scabiosifolia from adulterants of P. rupestris and P. saniculifolia in the herbal medicine Patriniae Radix. To establish a reliable authentication tool distinguishing authentic Patriniae Radix species from adulterants, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genomic profiling and obtained several species-specific DNA fragments for each of the four Patrinia species. Based on the sequences of these amplicons, we developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers as stable molecular authentication tools. SCAR markers to identify the authentic Patriniae Radix species, P. villosa and P. scabiosifolia, were developed. To accurately identify adulterants, we also developed SCAR markers able to identify the inauthentic P. rupestris and P. saniculifolia species. Furthermore, we established multiplex-PCR SCAR assays to simultaneously distinguish all four species using combinations of species-specific SCAR marker primer sets. These efforts resulted in reliable DNA-based molecular markers to identify authentic Patriniae Radix species from their adulterants and a rapid authentication assay for the efficient identification of Patrinia species. These markers will facilitate the standardization of Patriniae Radix preparations and therefore prevent the distribution of adulterants.