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Construction of a bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing S genes of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium

Zhang, Yudi, Zhang, Xiaohui, Liao, Xiaodan, Huang, Xiaobo, Cao, Sanjie, Wen, Xintian, Wen, Yiping, Wu, Rui, Liu, Wumei
Virus genes 2016 v.52 no.3 pp. 354-364
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Transmissible gastroenteritis virus, diarrhea, edible vaccines, financial economics, genes, humoral immunity, immune response, immunoglobulin G, interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, lymphocyte proliferation, neonates, neutralization, neutralizing antibodies, oral vaccination, piglets, recombinant vaccines, structural proteins, viruses
Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause severe diarrhea in newborn piglets and led to significant economic losses. The S proteins are the main structural proteins of PEDV and TGEV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. In this study, a DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) co-expressing S proteins of TGEV and PEDV delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was constructed and its immunogenicity in piglets was investigated. Twenty-day-old piglets were orally immunized with SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) at a dosage of 1.6 × 10¹¹ CFU per piglet and then booster immunized with 2.0 × 10¹¹ CFU after 2 weeks. Humoral immune responses, as reflected by virus neutralizing antibodies and specific IgG and sIgA, and cellular immune responses, as reflected by IFN-γ, IL-4, and lymphocyte proliferation, were evaluated. SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) simultaneously elicited immune responses against TGEV and PEDV after oral immunization. The immune levels started to increase at 2 weeks after immunization and increased to levels statistically significantly different than controls at 4 weeks post-immunization, peaking at 6 weeks and declined at 8 weeks. The humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses induced by SL7207 (pAXD-PS1-TS) were significantly higher than those of the PBS and SL7207 (pVAXD) (p < 0.01). In particular, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were higher than those induced by the single-gene vaccine SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1) (p < 0.05). These results demonstrated that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) possess the immunological functions of the two S proteins of TGEV and PEDV, indicating that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) is a candidate oral vaccine for TGE and PED.