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Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

Szabó, A., Gyimes, E., Véha, A.
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria 2015 v.8 no.1 pp. 95-103
H-transporting ATP synthase, aluminum, arable soils, enzyme activity, hydroponics, plasma membrane, seedlings, soil pH, staple foods, toxicity, winter wheat
Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM) were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg²⁺-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.