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Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
- Mollavali, Mohanna, Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali, Schwarz, Dietmar, Rohn, Sascha, Riehle, Peer, Nahandi, Fariborz Zaare
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.1 pp. 71-77
- Allium cepa, Diversispora, Glomus mosseae, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, biosynthesis, catalase, catechol oxidase, color, cultivars, enzyme activity, flavonols, glucosides, mycorrhizae, mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient uptake, onions, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, pyruvic acid, vitamin content
- The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly ‘Red Azar-shahr’, showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4′-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4′-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4′-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.