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Contribution of Agricultural Field Production to Emission of Greenhouse Gases (Ghg)

Bálint, Ágnes, Hoffmann, Sándor, Anton, Attila, Szili-Kovács, Tibor, Heltai, György
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering 2013 v.20 no.2 pp. 233-245
agricultural land, agricultural soils, atmospheric chemistry, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide production, chemiluminescence, databases, ecosystem engineering, environmental factors, environmental impact, field experimentation, gas chromatography, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, harvesting, headspace analysis, inventories, irrigation, land use planning, methane, mineral fertilizers, models, monitoring, nitrous oxide, pH, physical properties, plant nutrition, planting, redox potential, soil texture, soil water, tillage, vegetation, Central European region
According to global inventories the agricultural field production contributes in a significant measure to increase of concentration of greenhouse gases (CO₂, N₂O, CH₄) in the atmosphere, however their estimated data of emissions of soil origin differ significantly. Particularly estimates on nitrogen-oxides emissions show a great temporal and spatial variability while their formations in microbial processes are strongly influenced by biogeochemical and physical properties of the soil (eg microbial species, soil texture, soil water, pH, redox-potential and nutrient status) and land use management through the impact of the application of natural and synthetic fertilisers, tillage, irrigation, compaction, planting and harvesting. The different monitoring systems and inventory models were developed mostly from atmospheric chemistry point of view and little comprehensive data exist on the processes related to GHG emissions and their productions in agricultural soils under ecological conditions of Central Europe. This paper presents the new results of a project aimed elaboration of an experimental system suitable for studying relationships between the production and emission of greenhouse gases and plant nutrition supply in agricultural soils under Hungarian ecological conditions. The system was based on a long-term fertilisation field experiment. Mesocosm size pot experiments were conducted with soils originating from differently treated plots. The production of CO₂ and N₂O was followed during the vegetation period in gas traps built in 20 cm depth. Undisturbed soil columns were prepared from the untreated side parcels of the field experiment and the production of CO₂ and N₂O was studied at 20, 40 and 60 cm depth. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were performed to clarify the microbial and environmental effects influencing the gas production in soils. The CO₂ and N₂O were determined by gas chromatography. The NOₓ was detected by chemiluminescence method in headspace of microcosms. In the mesocosm and soil columns experiments influence of plant nutrition methods and environmental factors was successfully clarified on seasonal dynamics and depth profile on CO₂ and N₂O productions. The database developed is suitable for estimating CO₂ and N₂O emissions from agricultural soils.