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Metals Uptake by Wastewater Irrigated Vegetables and their Daily Dietary Intake in Peshawar, Pakistan / Pobieranie Metali Przez Warzywa Nawadniane Ściekami I Ich Dzienne Stężenie W Diecie Ludności Peszawaru, Pakistan

Khan, Sher Ali, Liu, Xiaoyu, Shah, Bakht Ramin, Fan, Wenting, Li, Hong, Khan, Sher Bahadhar, Ahmad, Zahoor
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering 2015 v.22 no.1 pp. 125-139
Food and Agriculture Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, World Health Organization, atomic absorption spectrometry, average daily intake, cabbage, cadmium, cauliflower, chemistry, chromium, cobalt, engineering, food intake, health hazards, humans, iron, lead, lettuce, manganese, nickel, nutrients, radishes, risk, spinach, wastewater, wastewater irrigation, zinc, Pakistan
Vegetables are important source of nutrients for human body. Wastewater irrigation may lead to contamination of these vegetables and cause possible health risk. In the present study impact of waste water irrigation on metals uptake (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb) by five commonly consumed vegetables (radish, cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower and spinach) grown in the suburbs of Peshawar were investigated using AAS (Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer). The uptake and accumulation of metals for vegetables irrigated with wastewater were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than tube well irrigated vegetables and permissible limits of WHO/FAO. Among the edible parts of vegetables maximum accumulation of Mn, Pb and Cd occurred in radish followed by Ni and Fe in spinach while Cr and Zn were high in cauliflower and cabbage. The estimated daily intake of metals (DIM) revealed that at present the consumption of studied vegetables were under the tolerable limits of (US-EPA, IRIS), however intake of metals in waste water irrigated vegetables were significantly high and can cause health hazards in the long run