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Acaracide research and development, resistance, and resistance monitoring

Guerrero, Felix D., Pérez de León, Adalberto A., Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger I., Jonsson, Nick, Miller, Robert J., Andreotti, Renato
Biology of Ticks 2014 v.2 pp. 353-381
Ixodes scapularis, Lyme disease, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, acaricide resistance, acaricides, animal production, cattle, cattle diseases, cattle industry, control methods, disease vectors, economic incentives, financial economics, markets, monitoring, new products, pets, production technology, research and development, tick control, tick infestations, ticks, Australia, Brazil, United States
Ticks have a significant deleterious effect on humans, agricultural systems, and companion animals. Strategies based on the use of chemicals were developed to control these pests and to mitigate their impacts on human and animal health and agriculture. There is considerable economic incentive to control ticks affecting animal production systems. In Brazil and Australia alone, the estimated annual economic loss inflicted on the cattle industry that is attributable to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus has been estimated to be over $2 billion and $175 million, respectively. Over 170 million bovines are managed by the Brazilian cattle industry and the parasiticide market in Brazil has a value of US$ 960 million in sales, accounting for 34% of the Brazilian veterinary product market. In Brazil, new products for tick control must be at least 95% effective to be registered, according to criteria set forth by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Supply, but because an official program for tick control is lacking, criteria for the management of tick infestations are entirely defined by producers. In the late 1800s, the U.S. cattle industry was suffering losses due to cattle fever vectored by R. microplus and R. annulatus ticks that is the equivalent of $3 billion in today's U.S. dollars. The tick, Ixodes scapularis, vectors Lyme disease in the U.S. and the costs associated with that disease have been estimated at over $200 million annually. An estimation placed the global costs of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the agricultural sector alone to be over $7 billion annually. Although this dollar figure was only a crude estimation based on broad assumptions, it indicates the enormity of the impact ticks have on society and the economic motivation to develop innovative control methodologies.