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Discovery of New Herbicide Modes of Action with Natural Phytotoxins

Duke, Stephen O., Dayan, Franck E.
Discovery and Synthesis of Crop Protection Products 2015 v.1204 pp. 79-92
evolution, gene targeting, herbicidal properties, herbicide resistance, herbicides, mechanism of action, phytotoxins, plant protection, weeds
About 20 modes of action (MOAs) are utilized by commercial herbicides, and almost 30 years have passed since the last new MOA was introduced. Rapidly increasing evolution of resistance to herbicides with these MOAs has greatly increased the need for herbicides with new MOAs. Combinatorial chemistry and gene knockout approaches have not led to commercial herbicides with new MOAs. The question arises as to how many good herbicide MOAs exist. The relatively little that we know of the MOAs of natural phytotoxins that can effectively kill plants suggests that there are herbicide MOAs yet to be exploited. Some of these targets are questionable because of potential toxicological problems, but many others are not. The MOAs of natural phytotoxins are discussed and strategies to maximize discovery of new MOAs with natural products that might be used as herbicides are presented.