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Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

Dürešová, Zuzana, Šuňovská, Anna, Horník, Miroslav, Pipíška, Martin, Gubišová, Marcela, Gubiš, Jozef, Lesný, Juraj
Nova biotechnologica et chimica 2015 v.14 no.2 pp. 176-190
Apium graveolens, Arundo donax, Nicotiana tabacum, Noccaea caerulescens, Thlaspi, Zea mays, cadmium, celery, cluster analysis, corn, gamma spectrometry, hydroponics, hyperaccumulators, leaves, multivariate analysis, nutrient solutions, phytoremediation, radiometry, radionuclides, shoots, tissues, tobacco, vascular plants, zinc
The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), celery (Apium graveolens L.), maize (Zea mays L.), giant reed (Arundo donax L.), and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L.) under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides ¹⁰⁹Cd or ⁶⁵Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR) [Me]ₛₕₒₒₜ / [Me]ᵣₒₒₜ calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA). According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation and other positive parameters for their utilization in phytoremediation processes and techniques.