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Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food

Melo, Airis Maria Araújo, Alexandre, Dalila L., Furtado, Roselayne F., Borges, Maria F., Figueiredo, Evânia Altina T., Biswas, Atanu, Cheng, Huai N., Alves, Carlúcio R.
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2016 v.100 no.12 pp. 5301-5312
Salmonella, antibodies, biological speciation, electrochemistry, food industry, food safety, foodborne illness, immunosensors, microbial detection, public health, transducers (equipment)
Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing “real-time” and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry.