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Bound Phenolics of Quinoa Seeds Released by Acid, Alkaline, and Enzymatic Treatments and Their Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects
- Tang, Yao, Zhan, Bing, Li, Xihong, Chen, Peter X., Zhang, Hua, Liu, Ronghua, Tsao, Rong
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.8 pp. 1712-1719
- alpha-glucosidase, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, bioavailability, enzymatic treatment, fermentation, feruloyl esterase, flavonoids, foods, hydrolysis, intestinal microorganisms, large intestine, phenolic acids, polygalacturonase, seeds, triacylglycerol lipase, xylanases
- Unextractable phenolics from plant foods and their role in health benefits have become increasingly important. Meal residues of three quinoa seeds free of fat and extractable phenolics were subjected to acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses. The total and individual phenolic compounds released were analyzed, and 19 phenolics, predominantly phenolic acids and several flavonoids, were identified. The concentration of bound phenolics was highest in black quinoa followed by red and white, regardless of the hydrolysis method. Higher phenolic contents also showed stronger antioxidant activities and inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. Carbohydrases, that is, pectinase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase, which effectively liberated bound phenolics are known to be secreted by colonic bacteria, suggesting potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by these compounds in the large intestine during colonic fermentation. These results can also be applied to treat foods high in bound phenolics to enhance bioaccessibility.