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Protective Role of Flavonoids and Lipophilic Compounds from Jatropha platyphylla on the Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in Macrophage Cells
- Ambriz-Perez, Dulce L., Bang, Woo Young, Nair, Vimal, Angulo-Escalante, Miguel A., Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis, Heredia, J. Basilio
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.9 pp. 1899-1909
- Jatropha platyphylla, apigenin, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, genistein, glycosides, inflammation, leaves, lipopolysaccharides, luteolin, macrophages, mitochondria, nitric oxide, polyphenols, prostaglandin synthase, protective effect, pulp, seeds, sterols, terpenoids
- Seventeen polyphenols (e.g, apigenin, genistein, and luteolin glycosides) and 11 lipophilic compounds (e.g., fatty acids, sterols, and terpenes) were detected by LC-MS/MS-ESI and GC-MS, respectively, in Jatropha platyphylla. Extracts from pulp, kernel, and leaves and fractions were studied to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. Phenolic and lipophilic extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ROS and NO production while not affecting mitochondrial activity or superoxide generation rate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, NO production was also diminished by lipophilic leaf fractions F1 and F2 with the latter fraction showing a greater effect and composed mainly of sterols and terpene. Furthermore, total extracts showed nonselective inhibitions against cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 activities. All together, these results suggest that J. platyphylla extracts have potential in treating inflammatory diseases and their activity is mediated by flavonoids and lipophilic compounds.