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Protective Role of Flavonoids and Lipophilic Compounds from Jatropha platyphylla on the Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in Macrophage Cells

Ambriz-Perez, Dulce L., Bang, Woo Young, Nair, Vimal, Angulo-Escalante, Miguel A., Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis, Heredia, J. Basilio
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.9 pp. 1899-1909
Jatropha platyphylla, apigenin, fatty acids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, genistein, glycosides, inflammation, leaves, lipopolysaccharides, luteolin, macrophages, mitochondria, nitric oxide, polyphenols, prostaglandin synthase, protective effect, pulp, seeds, sterols, terpenoids
Seventeen polyphenols (e.g, apigenin, genistein, and luteolin glycosides) and 11 lipophilic compounds (e.g., fatty acids, sterols, and terpenes) were detected by LC-MS/MS-ESI and GC-MS, respectively, in Jatropha platyphylla. Extracts from pulp, kernel, and leaves and fractions were studied to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. Phenolic and lipophilic extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ROS and NO production while not affecting mitochondrial activity or superoxide generation rate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, NO production was also diminished by lipophilic leaf fractions F1 and F2 with the latter fraction showing a greater effect and composed mainly of sterols and terpene. Furthermore, total extracts showed nonselective inhibitions against cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 activities. All together, these results suggest that J. platyphylla extracts have potential in treating inflammatory diseases and their activity is mediated by flavonoids and lipophilic compounds.