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Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants
- Yi, Jiang, Fan, Yuting, Yokoyama, Wallace, Zhang, Yuzhu, Zhao, Liqing
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.9 pp. 1970-1976
- alpha-tocopherol, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, corn oil, emulsifiers, encapsulation, high performance liquid chromatography, isomerization, isomers, medium chain triacylglycerols, nanoemulsions, oxidative stability, sodium caseinate, storage time, thermal degradation
- The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC’s chemical stability.