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Inverted meiosis and its place in the evolution of sexual reproduction pathways

Bogdanov, Yu. F.
Russian journal of genetics 2016 v.52 no.5 pp. 473-490
Aphididae, Luzula, Rhynchospora, anaphase, antibodies, centromeres, chiasmata, chromatids, chromatin, chromosome aberrations, chromosome number, diploidy, enzymes, evolution, females, fluorescence, haploidy, heterozygosity, hydrolysis, insects, males, meiosis, metaphase, parthenogenesis, pollen, prophase, satellite DNA, sexual reproduction
Inverted meiosis is observed in plants (Cyperaceae and Juncaceae) and insects (Coccoidea, Aphididae) with holocentric chromosomes, the centromeres of which occupy from 70 to 90% of the metaphase chromosome length. In the first meiotic division (meiosis I), chiasmata are formed and rodlike bivalents orient equationally, and in anaphase I, sister chromatids segregate to the poles; the diploid chromosome number is maintained. Non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes remain in contact during interkinesis and prophase II and segregate in anaphase II, forming haploid chromosome sets. The segregation of sister chromatids in meiosis I was demonstrated by example of three plant species that were heterozygous for chromosomal rearrangements. In these species, sister chromatids, marked with rearrangement, segregated in anaphase I. Using fluorescent antibodies, it was demonstrated that meiotic recombination enzymes Spo11 and Rad5l, typical of canonical meiosis, functioned at the meiotic prophase I of pollen mother cells of Luzula elegance and Rhynchospora pubera. Moreover, antibodies to synaptonemal complexes proteins ASY1 and ZYP1 were visualized as filamentous structures, pointing to probable formation of synaptonemal complexes. In L. elegance, chiasmata are formed by means of chromatin threads containing satellite DNA. According to the hypothesis of the author of this review, equational division of sister chromatids at meiosis I in the organisms with inverted meiosis can be explained by the absence of specific meiotic proteins (shugoshins). These proteins are able to protect cohesins of holocentric centromeres from hydrolysis by separases at meiosis I, as occurs in the organisms with monocentric chromosomes and canonical meiosis. The basic type of inverted meiosis was described in Coccoidea and Aphididae males. In their females, the variants of parthenogenesis were also observed. Until now, the methods of molecular cytogenetics were not applied for the analysis of inverted meiosis in Coccoidea and Aphididae. Evolutionary, inverted meiosis is thought to have appeared secondarily as an adaptation of the molecular mechanisms of canonical meiosis to chromosome holocentrism.