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Composition and Metabolic Activities of the Bacterial Community in Shrimp Sauce at the Flavor-Forming Stage of Fermentation As Revealed by Metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencings
- Duan, Shan, Hu, Xiaoxi, Li, Mengru, Miao, Jianyin, Du, Jinghe, Wu, Rongli
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.12 pp. 2591-2603
- Abiotrophia, Bacillus (bacteria), Carnobacterium, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, amino acids, bacterial communities, citrates, databases, fermentation, gene expression, genes, lactate dehydrogenase, limonene, microbial activity, oxidative phosphorylation, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, shrimp
- The bacterial community and the metabolic activities involved at the flavor-forming stage during the fermentation of shrimp sauce were investigated using metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA gene sequencings. Results showed that the abundance of Tetragenococcus was 95.1%. Tetragenococcus halophilus was identified in 520 of 588 transcripts annotated in the Nr database. Activation of the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase gene expression, in T. halophilus suggests that T. halophilus probably underwent aerobic metabolism during shrimp sauce fermentation. The metabolism of amino acids, production of peptidase, and degradation of limonene and pinene were very active in T. halophilus. Carnobacterium, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium were also metabolically active, although present in very small populations. Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were detected in metatranscriptome sequencing, but not in 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Many minor taxa showed no gene expression, suggesting that they were in dormant status.