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Cellulose nano-particles from Pandanus: viscometric and crystallographic studies

Chenampulli, Sangeetha, Unnikrishnan, G., Sujith, A., Thomas, Sabu, Francis, Tania
Cellulose 2013 v.20 no.1 pp. 429-438
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Pandanus, X-radiation, bleaching, cellulose, centrifugation, crystal structure, dispersions, equations, freeze drying, hydrolysis, image analysis, light scattering, lignin, nanoparticles, particle size, polymerization, retting, sulfuric acid, temperature, viscometry, India
Pandanus utilis a plant abundant throughout Kerala, India has been used as a source to isolate nano-particles. The fibres were extracted from Pandanus plant by biological natural retting. Extracted fibres were dried, ground and treated with 5 % NaOH followed by bleaching using 5 wt % hypochlorite solution. Bleached cellulose was hydrolysed using sulphuric acid. After centrifugation, suspension was freeze dried. Effect of Acid concentration, temperature and time of hydrolysis on the isolation of cellulose nanoparticles was studied. FESEM images of cellulose showed the presence of spherical nano-particles. Dynamic light scattering revealed homogeneous dispersion of nano-particles. Degree of polymerisation of cellulose was determined viscometrically using cupriethylene-diamine as solvent. Removal of lignin and hemicelluloses was confirmed from FTIR spectra. X-Ray diffractograms of powdered fibre, bleached cellulose and nano-cellulose were compared. Using peak height method and peak de-convolution method, crystallinity indices were determined. Using Scherrer equation crystallite size was calculated and it further confirmed that particles are of nanometre size.