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Comparison of the Action of Bleaching Herbicides
- Feierabend, Jürgen
- Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 2014 v.39 no.5 pp. 450-454
- carotenoids, catalase, chlorophyll, chloroplasts, chlorosis, color, free radicals, leaves, lipid peroxidation, oxygen, photolysis, protein synthesis, pyridazinone herbicides, superoxide anion
- Among chlorosis-inducing herbicides that interfere with carotenoid synthesis two groups of different potency can be discriminated (group 1: aminotriazole amd haloxidine; group 2 with more extensive photodestructions: pyridazinone herbicides and difunon). After application of herbicides of group 2 colored carotenoids were completely absent and preexisting chlorophyll was degraded by photochemical reactions requiring high light intensity and O₂, that occurred also at 0°C. In treatments with group 1 herbicides direct photodegradation of chlorophyll was not sufficient to generate the chlorosis. Light-induced interference with constituents of the chloroplast protein synthesis apparatus being more sensitive to photooxidative damage than chlorophyll, appeared to indirectly mediate the chlorosis. In the absence of chloroplast protein synthesis further chlorophyll accumulation is prevented. Photodegradation of chlorophyll in the presence of group 2 herbicides involved the participation of O₂⁻ radicals and was accompanied by lipid peroxidation. In all herbicide treatments the catalase activity of the leaves was very low. Only in the presence of group 2 herbicides chloroplast enzymes of cytoplasmic origin (e.g. NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were also inactivated. Rapid inactivation of catalase as well as of NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was induced by exposure of dim-light-grown herbicide-treated leaves to bright light, also at 0°C. In treatments with herbicides of group 2 also other peroxisomal enzymes (e.g. glycolate oxidate, hydroxy-pyruvate reductase) were affected. The elimination of these peroxisomal enzymes also appeared to depend on photooxidative processes of the chloroplast.