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Clonal variation in raspberry fruit phenolics and relevance for diabetes and hypertension management
- CHEPLICK, SUSAN, KWON, YOUNG-IN, BHOWMIK, PRASANTA, SHETTY, KALIDAS
- Journal of food biochemistry 2007 v.31 no.5 pp. 656-679
- Rubus occidentalis, antioxidant activity, chronic diseases, clinical trials, clonal variation, cultivars, dietary recommendations, enzyme inhibition, ethanol, fruit extracts, fruits, hypertension, in vitro studies, in vivo studies, kiwifruit, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, peptidyl-dipeptidase A, raspberries
- The health-relevant functionality of fruit extracts from 12 Rubus cultivars was evaluated for potential diabetes and hypertension management. Inhibition of in vitro α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE-1) activity was evaluated in conjunction with phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Black raspberries, Jewel and MacBlack cultivars, had the highest overall phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Red raspberry cultivars, Nova, Heritage and K81-6, showed the overall highest α-amylase inhibition in water and ethanol extracts. Jewel, a black raspberry cultivar, had the lowest α-amylase inhibitory activity of 40% or lower. Ethanol extracts of all 12 cultivars showed high inhibitory activity (above 85%) against α-glucosidase. The yellow raspberry, KCB-1, was the most effective at inhibiting α-glucosidase in both water and ethanol extracts. Fruit extracts of the yellow raspberries, KCB-1 and Kiwi Gold, showed the most potential for ACE-1 inhibition. Jewel and the red raspberry, Caroline, also had good activity against ACE-1. The insights from this research provide the biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies based on in vitro enzyme inhibition studies. This structure-function-based rationale can help to target specific cultivars of raspberry with specific and uniform phenolic profiles for diet designs targeted for managing early stages of type II diabetes and hypertension. The structure-function rationale of this in vitro study can also provide the directions for better design of animal and human clinical studies for more precise dietary recommendations for the previously mentioned chronic disease targets.