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Magnificant role of intracellular reactive oxygen species production and its scavenging encompasses downstream processes

Goraya, Gurpreet Kaur, Asthir, Bavita
Journal of plant biology = 2016 v.59 no.3 pp. 215-222
antioxidant activity, biochemical pathways, chloroplasts, defense mechanisms, electron transfer, electrons, free radical scavengers, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, mitochondria, oxidative stress, oxygen, peroxisomes, plasma membrane, signal transduction, superoxide anion, vacuoles
Environmental stresses are often associated with production of certain deleterious chemical entities called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), superoxide radical (O ₂ ⁻), hydroxyl radical (OH⁻). In plants, ROS are formed by the inevitable leakage of electrons onto O₂ from the electron transport activities of chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuole and plasma membranes or as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways. Plants have their own antioxidant defense mechanisms to encounter ROS that is of enzymic and non-enzymic nature. Coordinated activities of these antioxidants regulate ROS detoxification and reduces oxidative load in plants. Though ROS are always regarded to impart negative impact on plants, some reports consider them to be important in regulating key cellular functions; however, such reports in plant are limited. On the other hand, specific ROS function as signaling molecules and activate signal transduction processes in response to various stresses is a matter of investigation.