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5-Demethylnobiletin and 5-Acetoxy-6,7,8,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone Suppress Lipid Accumulation by Activating the LKB1-AMPK Pathway in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and High Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6 Mice

Tung, Yen-Chen, Li, Shiming, Huang, Qingrong, Hung, Wei-Lun, Ho, Chi-Tang, Wei, Guor-Jien, Pan, Min-Hsiung
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.16 pp. 3196-3205
adenosine, adipogenesis, bioavailability, body weight, cholesterol, citrus peels, enzymes, liver, males, mice, oral administration, polymethoxyflavones, solubility, transcription factors, triacylglycerols
Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) and hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs), such as nobiletin (Nob) and 5-demethylnobiletin (5-OH-Nob), are unique flavonoids that are found exclusively in citrus peels. Nobiletin has been shown to suppress adipogenesis in vitro, but the antiadipogenic activity of 5-OH-Nob has not been investigated. Both nobiletin and 5-OH-Nob have poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability. We employed chemical modification to produce the acetyl derivative of 5-OH-Nob, that is, 5-acetyloxy-6,7,8,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone (5-Ac-Nob), to improve its bioavailability and bioactive efficiency. We found that 5-Ac-Nob reduced triacylglycerol (TG) content to a greater extent than 5-OH-Nob in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Orally administered 5-Ac-Nob resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, intra-abdominal fat, plasma and liver TG levels, and plasma cholesterol level in high fat diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. The 5-Ac-Nob treatment decreased lipid accumulation by triggering the adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway to alter transcriptional factors or lipogenesis-related enzymes in vivo and in vitro.