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Interactions between callus cultures of Pinus sylvestris and pine fungi with different trophic properties

Nawrot‐Chorabik, K., Grad, B., Kowalski, T.
Forest pathology 2016 v.46 no.3 pp. 179-186
Gremmeniella abietina, Phacidium, Pinus sylvestris, callus, callus culture, cell structures, color, conifer needles, death, electrophoresis, endophytes, fungi, genotype, host plants, microbial growth, necrosis, pathogenesis-related proteins, pathogens, saprotrophs, shoots, somatic embryogenesis, tissue culture, virulence
Fungal virulence may be studied using tissues cultures of host plants in dual cultures in vitro, enabling analyses of interactions with undifferentiated cells of their host plants. Three genotypes of Pinus sylvestris callus, initiated by somatic embryogenesis, were used for establishing dual cultures with fungi pathogenic, endophytic or saprotrophic on pine needles or shoots. Fungal growth towards the plant callus tissue differed, depending on the life strategy of the fungus. The pathogen Gremmeniella abietina proved the slowest colonizer of callus whereas the saprotrophic Phacidium lacerum was the fastest. Gremmeniella abietina partially overgrew the callus, causing extensive necrosis and death within 10 days after inoculation. Anthostomella formosa, an endophyte of pines, did not cause evident symptoms of callus degradation: after 10 days of dual culture, the callus cells remained greenish and at least 50% of cells were alive. In dual cultures Ph. lacerum, callus remained alive until the end of the experiment, maintaining a white‐creamy colour with a loose cell structure. Electrophoresis of protein extracts from the callus showed the presence of additional bands of 25–35 kDa only in host tissues challenged with the pathogen G. abietina, possibly indicating the production of pathogenesis‐related proteins. This work has shown that pine callus does not respond equally to challenge with different fungal isolates. In general, one‐third of the isolates of each fungus examined showed greater virulence compared to other isolates.