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Thermal and Pressure-Assisted Thermal Destruction Kinetics for Spores of Type A Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes PA3679

Author:
Reddy, N. Rukma, Patazca, Eduardo, Morrissey, Travis R., Skinner, Guy E., Loeza, Viviana, Schill, Kristin M., Larkin, John W.
Source:
Journal of food protection 2016 v.79 no.2 pp. 253-262
ISSN:
0362-028X
Subject:
Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium sporogenes, buffers, heat tolerance, heat treatment, pH, proteolysis, screening, spores, temperature
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of the spores of the most resistant proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strains (Giorgio-A and 69-A, as determined from an earlier screening study) and of Clostridium sporogenes PA3679 and to compare the thermal and pressure-assisted thermal resistance of these spores. Spores of these strains were prepared using a biphasic medium method. C. sporogenes PA3679 spores were heat treated before spore preparation. Using laboratory-scale and pilot-scale pressure test systems, spores of Giorgio-A, 69-A, and PA3679 suspended in ACES [N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid] buffer (pH 7.0) were exposed to various combinations of temperature (93 to 121°C) and pressure (0.1 to 750 MPa) to determine their resistance. More than a 5-log reduction occurred after 3 min at 113°C for spores of Giorgio-A and 69-A and after 5 min at 117°C for spores of PA3679. A combination of high temperatures (93 to 121°C) and pressures yielded greater log reductions of spores of Giorgio-A, 69-A, and PA3679 compared with reduction obtained with high temperatures alone. No survivors from initial levels (>5.0 log CFU) of Giorgio-A and 69-A were detected when processed at a combination of high temperature (117 and 121°C) and high pressure (600 and 750 MPa) for <1 min in a pilot-scale pressure test system. Increasing pressure from 600 to 750 MPa at 117°C decreased the time from 2.7 to 1 min for a >4.5-log reduction of PA3679 spores. Thermal D-values of Giorgio-A, 69-A, and PA3679 spores decreased (i.e., 29.1 to 0.33 min for Giorgio-A, 40.5 to 0.27 min for 69-A, and 335.2 to 2.16 min for PA3679) as the temperature increased from 97 to 117°C. Pressure-assisted thermal D-values of Giorgio-A, 69-A, and PA3679 also decreased as temperature increased from 97 to 121°C at both pressures (600 and 750 MPa) (i.e., 17.19 to 0.15 min for Giorgio-A, 9.58 to 0.15 min for 69-A, and 12.93 to 0.33 min for PA3679 at 600 MPa). At higher temperatures (117 or 121°C), increasing pressure from 600 to 750 MPa had an effect on pressure-assisted thermal D-values of PA3679 (i.e., at 117°C, pressure-assisted thermal D-value decreased from 0.55 to 0.28 min as pressure increased from 600 to 750 MPa), but pressure had no effect on pressure-assisted thermal D-values of Giorgio-A and 69-A. When compared with Giorgio-A and 69-A, PA3679 had higher thermal and pressure-assisted thermal D-values. C. sporogenes PA3679 spores were generally more resistant to combinations of high pressure and high temperature than were the spores of the C. botulinum strains tested in this study.