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Evolution of Cuphea PSR23 under cultivation

Abdullah A. Jaradat
Euphytica 2016 v.210 no.1 pp. 41-55
Cuphea, domestication, evolution, lipid content, multivariate analysis, oilseed crops, parents, phenotype, phenotypic variation, plant breeding, seed shattering, seed yield, seeds, yield components
A series of experiments were carried out under controlled environments and field conditions (2002–2008) to evaluate populations of the potential oilseed crop Cuphea PSR23 for indicators of evolution under cultivation and to assess its level of domestication in comparison with its wild parents. Cuphea PSR23, a selection with reduced seed shattering, resulted from a cross between two wild species (C. viscosissima and C. lanceolata). Phenotypic traits, singly or in combinations, and nutrient ratios measured on plants and seed of all three species were subjected to a set of multivariate statistical analyses procedures to identify and assess indicators of phenotypic divergence of Cuphea PSR23 from its wild parents over several planting-harvesting-seed selection cycles. Results of this assessment suggested that Cuphea PSR23 is phenotypically distinct from its wild parents (with 84.9 % correct classification in canonical discrimination). Compared to its wild parents, Cuphea PSR23 displayed stronger relationships between plant- and seed-based traits with seed yield; exhibited enhanced multivariate relationships between yield components (expressed as principal components and path analysis coefficients); and had larger oil content stored in larger seeds. However, this phenotypic divergence did not fully separate Cuphea PSR23 from its wild parents as indicated by the level of multivariate trait integration, a few shared principal components, and incomplete discrimination.