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Integrative diagnosis and parasitic habits of Cryphodera brinkmani a non-cyst forming heteroderid nematode intercepted on Japanese white pine bonsai trees imported into Italy

Vovlas, Nicola, Trisciuzzi, Nicola, Troccoli, Alberto, De Luca, Francesca, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina, Castillo, Pablo
European journal of plant pathology 2013 v.135 no.4 pp. 717-726
Meloidodera, Pinus parviflora, bonsai, cambium, cell nucleolus, cell walls, cytochrome-c oxidase, females, genes, giant cells, internal transcribed spacers, parasitism, phloem, phylogeny, ribosomal DNA, roots, stele, trees, xylem, Italy, Japan
The non-cyst forming heteroderid nematode Cryphodera brinkmani was detected in Italy parasitizing roots of Japanese white pine bonsai (Pinus parviflora) trees imported from Japan. Morphology and morphometrical traits of the intercepted population on this new host for C. brinkmani were in agreement with the original description, except for some minor differences on male morphology. Integrative molecular data for this species were obtained using D2-D3 expansion regions of 28S rDNA, ITS1-rDNA, the partial 18S rDNA, and the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI). The phylogenetic relationships of this species with other representatives of non-cyst and cyst-forming Heteroderidae using ITS1 are presented and indicated that C. brinkmani clustered together with other Cryphodera spp. and with Meloidodera alni suggesting a monophyletic origin of non-cyst forming nematodes (Heteroderinae sensu Luc et al. 1978), which have been considered close to the ancestor of most species of Heteroderidae. Histological observations of P. parviflora feeder roots infected by C. brinkmani indicated that nematode females induce similar anatomical alterations to those reported for C. kalesari, consisting of formation of a single uninucleate giant cell (nurse cell) with hypertrophied nucleus, prominenet nucleolus, thickened cell wall and expanding into the stele and in contact of xylem, vacuum cambium and phloem. These findings are in agreement with the results of the phylogenetic analysis and indicate a close relationship in the plant responses induced by Cryphodera nematode females with those caused by the genetically related Meloidodera spp., which also induce formation of a uninucletate giant cell.