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Addition of enzymes to improve sensory quality of composite wheat–cassava bread
- Serventi, Luca, Jensen, Sidsel, Skibsted, Leif H., Kidmose, Ulla
- European food research & technology 2016 v.242 no.8 pp. 1245-1252
- alpha-amylase, baking, breads, carboxylic ester hydrolases, cassava flour, food research, fungi, glucan 1,4-alpha-maltohydrolase, glucose oxidase, loaves, porosity, sensory evaluation, sensory properties, stickiness, texture, wheat, wheat flour, xylanases
- Composite wheat–cassava (WC) bread was recently proposed as a sustainable alternative to wheat bread. Nonetheless, using >20 % cassava flour on flour basis in bread baking has consistently been proven to impair the sensory quality. Selected enzymes: fungal alpha-amylase Fungamyl® 2500 SG (Fungamyl), maltogenic alpha-amylase Novamyl® 10000 BG (Novamyl), xylanase Panzea® BG (Panzea), lipase Lipopan® Xtra BG (Lipopan) and glucose oxidase Gluzyme® Mono 10000 BG (GOX) were tested for sensory improvement of the WC bread, investigating textural and structural changes. Wheat flour replacement with fermented cassava flour (Polvilho Azedo) at 30 % level resulted in bread of lower volume with chewier texture and smaller crumb pores. Fungamyl, Novamyl and Panzea enhanced loaf volume of wheat bread; however, they decreased volume and conferred stickiness when added to the WC bread. Lipopan increased loaf volume of the amylases- and xylanase-treated WC bread, but to a lower extent than that of its enzyme-free counterpart. No significant effects were observed when GOX was added to the WC bread. Sensory analysis showed softer texture and larger pore size, which were correlated to higher volume, for the two Lipopan-containing WC bread samples as compared to their enzyme-free counterpart.