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Anticlastogenicity and Anticarcinogenicity of Purple Rice Extract in Rats

Punvittayagul, Charatda, Sankam, Paweena, Taya, Sirinya, Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan
Nutrition and cancer 2016 v.68 no.4 pp. 646-653
Oryza sativa, Salmonella, acute toxicity, body weight, carcinogenicity, chemoprevention, diethylnitrosamine, glutathione, hepatocytes, liver, methanol, mutation, oral administration, rats, rice, Thailand
Oryza sativa L. var. indica cv. Kum Doi Saket is a pigmented rice variety grown in northern Thailand. Our previous study found that the methanol extract of purple rice seed had the highest level of antimutagenicity in a Salmonella mutation assay. The present study was designed to evaluate its in vivo anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic potentials. The purple rice extract had no acute toxicity on rats. The oral administration of 1,000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the extract for 28 days did not increase the number of micronucleated hepatocytes. Interestingly, it significantly reduced the amount of micronucleus formation in the liver of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated rats. The inhibitory mechanism involved the induction of hepatic glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity. In addition, oral administration of 500 mg/kg bw extract for 10 weeks significantly decreased the number of hepatic GST placental form positive foci, but did not modulate the number of colonic aberrant crypt foci in DEN- and dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats. In conclusion, the methanol extract of purple rice seed showed no toxicity, clastogenicity, or carcinogenicity in laboratory rats. It did display chemopreventive activity against the early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis.