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Gastrointestinal stability and bioavailability of (poly)phenolic compounds following ingestion of Concord grape juice by humans

Stalmach, Angelique, Edwards, Christine A., Wightman, JoLynne D., Crozier, Alan
Molecular nutrition & food research 2012 v.56 no.3 pp. 497-509
absorption, acids, anthocyanins, bioavailability, colon, esters, excretion, grape juice, humans, hydrogenation, ingestion, metabolites, microorganisms, phenolic compounds, small intestine
The in vitro gastrointestinal stability of (poly)phenolic compounds in Concord grape juice was compared with recoveries in ileal fluid after the ingestion of the juice by ileostomists. Recoveries in ileal fluid indicated that 67% of hydroxycinnamate tartarate esters, and smaller percentages of the intake of other (poly)phenolic compounds, pass from the small intestine to the colon. The juice was also ingested by healthy subjects with an intact functioning colon. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) ranged from 1.0 nmol/L for petunidin‐3‐O‐glucoside to 355 nmol/L for dihydrocoumaric acid. Urinary excretion, as an indicator of bioavailability, varied from 0.26% for total anthocyanins to 24% for metabolites of hydroxycinnamate tartarate esters. The Cmax times of the anthocyanins indicated that their low level absorption occurred in the small intestine in contrast to hydroxycinnamate metabolites which were absorbed in both the small and the large intestine where the colonic microflora appeared responsible for hydrogenation of the hydroxycinnamate side chain. The bioavailability of the complex mixture of (poly)phenolic compounds in Concord grape juice, was very similar to that observed in previous studies when compounds were either fed individually or as major components in products containing a restricted spectrum of (poly)phenolic compounds.