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Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains Part A Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment
- Hietaniemi, Veli, Rämö, Sari, Yli-Mattila, Tapani, Jestoi, Marika, Peltonen, Sari, Kartio, Mirja, Sieviläinen, Elina, Koivisto, Tauno, Parikka, Päivi
- Food additives & contaminants 2016 v.33 no.5 pp. 831-848
- DNA, Fusarium graminearum, HT-2 toxin, barley, biological resistance, climate change, deoxynivalenol, fungi, monitoring, mycobiota, oats, spring wheat, surveys, weather, Finland
- The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005–14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum , F. culmorum , F. graminearum , F. poae , F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005–06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005–14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005–14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005–06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.