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Ionic‐liquid‐based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with high‐performance liquid chromatography for the forensic determination of methamphetamine in human urine

Wang, Ruifeng, Qi, Xiujuan, Zhao, Lei, Liu, Shimin, Gao, Shuang, Ma, Xiangyuan, Deng, Youquan
Journal of separation science 2016 v.39 no.13 pp. 2444-2450
detection limit, drugs, forensic sciences, high performance liquid chromatography, humans, ionic liquids, liquid-phase microextraction, methanol, pH, statistical analysis, sustainable technology, temperature, urine
Determination of methamphetamine in forensic laboratories is a major issue due to its health and social harm. In this work, a simple, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method based on ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with high‐performance liquid chromatography was established for the analysis of methamphetamine in human urine. 1‐Octyl‐3‐methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate with the help of disperser solvent methanol was selected as the microextraction solvent in this process. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of methamphetamine were investigated systemically, including extraction solvent and its volume, disperser solvent and its volume, sample pH, extraction temperature, and centrifugal time. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10–1000 ng/mL with determination coefficient >0.99. The limit of detection calculated at a signal‐to‐noise ratio of 3 was 1.7 ng/mL and the relative standard deviations for six replicate experiments at three different concentration levels of 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL were 6.4, 4.5, and 4.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, up to 220‐fold enrichment factor of methamphetamine and acceptable extraction recovery (>80.0%) could be achieved. Furthermore, this method has been successfully employed for the sensitive detection of a urine sample from a suspected drug abuser.