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Characterization and evolution of porcine deltacoronavirus in the United States

Homwong, Nitipong, Jarvis, Matthew C., Lam, Ham Ching, Diaz, Andres, Rovira, Albert, Nelson, Martha, Marthaler, Douglas
Preventive veterinary medicine 2016 v.123 pp. 168-174
Bayesian theory, Deltacoronavirus, evolution, feces, genome, suckling, swine, United States
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was identified in multiple states across the United States (US) in 2014. In this study, we investigate the presence of PDCoV in diagnostic samples, which were further categorized by case identification (ID), and the association between occurrence, age, specimen and location between March and September 2014. Approximately, 7% of the case IDs submitted from the US were positive for PDCoV. Specimens were categorized into eight groups, and the univariate analysis indicated that oral fluids had 1.89 times higher odds of detecting PDCoV compared to feces. While the 43–56 day age group had the highest percentage of PDCoV positives (8.4%), the univariate analysis indicated no significant differences between age groups. However, multivariable analysis for age adjusted by specimen indicated the >147 day age group had 59% lower odds than suckling pigs of being positive for PDCoV. The percentage of PDCoV in diagnostic samples decreased to <1% in September 2014. In addition, 19 complete PDCoV genomes were sequenced, and Bayesian analysis was conducted to estimate the emergence of the US clade. The evolutionary rate of the PDCoV genome is estimated to be 3.8×10−4 substitutions/site/year (2.3×10−4–5.4×10−4, 95% HPD). Our results indicate that oral fluids continue to be a valuable specimen to monitor swineherd health, and PDCoV has been circulating in the US prior to 2014.