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Bioaccessibility, sources and health risk assessment of trace metals in urban park dust in Nanjing, Southeast China

Wang, Jinhua, Li, Shiwei, Cui, Xinyi, Li, Huiming, Qian, Xin, Wang, Cheng, Sun, Yixuan
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016 v.128 pp. 161-170
adults, anthropogenic activities, arsenic, bioavailability, cadmium, children, chromium, cobalt, copper, humans, ingestion, isotopes, lead, manganese, nickel, pollution load, principal component analysis, risk, risk assessment, vanadium, zinc, China
Arsenic, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn total concentrations and bioaccessibilities in 15 urban park dust samples were determined. The oral bioaccessibility measured by the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) decreased in the order of Pb>Cd>Zn>Mn>Cu>Co>V>Ni>As>Cr. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to evaluate the pollution extent to which the samples were contaminated. Sources were identified using principal component analysis and Pb isotope compositions. Most elements except Co and V were considered to mainly originate from anthropogenic sources. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to humans through urban park dust exposure were assessed using the oral bioaccessibilities of the elements. Ingestion was the main pathway for non-carcinogenic risk. The hazard quotients were below the safe level (=1) for all elements, however, Pb (0.154) and As (0.184) posed potential higher risks to children than adults. The carcinogenic effects occurring were below the acceptable level (10−4) for As and <10−6 for Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni.