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Multilevel ecotoxicity assessment of environmentally relevant bisphenol A concentrations using the soil invertebrate Eisenia fetida

Babić, Sanja, Barišić, Josip, Bielen, Ana, Bošnjak, Ivana, Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn, Ujević, Ivana, Strunjak-perović, Ivančica, Popović, Natalija Topić, Čož-rakovac, Rozelindra
Journal of hazardous materials 2016
Eisenia fetida, atrophy, behavior change, biomarkers, bisphenol A, cell walls, earthworms, ecotoxicology, high performance liquid chromatography, histopathology, hyperplasia, integument, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, soil ecosystems, tissue weight, toxicity
Bisphenol A (BPA) presents a serious threat to soil ecosystems, yet its effects on soil-inhabiting organisms are mostly unexplored. Therefore, the impact of environmentally relevant BPA concentrations on a terrestrial model organism, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, was assessed. Animals were cutaneously exposed to 100nM and 10μM BPA up to 10days (10-d). Next, a battery of biomarkers was used for ecotoxicological evaluation on a cellular, tissue and behavioural level. HPLC analysis showed that after a 10-d exposure, BPA accumulation reached a maximum of 2.50μg BPA per g of wet tissue weight. On the cellular level, up to 3-d BPA exposure caused increased lipid oxidation indicating oxidative stress. Histopathological assessment of cell wall and ovaries after 7- and 10-d BPA exposure showed multiple abnormalities, i.e. hyperplasia of epidermis, increased body wall thickness and ovarian atrophy. Detection of these changes was facilitated by a newly proposed semi-quantitative scoring system. Finally, behavioural changes were detected after only 3days of exposure to 100nM BPA. Altogether, the presented multilevel toxicity evaluation indicates high sensitivity of earthworms to low BPA doses.