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Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

Ponsankar, Athirstam, Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran, Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan, Thanigaivel, Annamalai, Edwin, Edward-Sam, Selin-Rani, Selvaraj, Kalaivani, Kandaswamy, Hunter, Wayne B., Alessandro, Rocco T., Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed, Paik, Chae-Hoon, Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu, Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016
Eisenia fetida, Spodoptera litura, biodegradability, botanical insecticides, chemical compounds, cypermethrin, digestive system, dose response, earthworms, epithelium, flowers, herbivores, high performance liquid chromatography, instars, larvae, larvicides, lethal concentration 50, mammals, microvilli, mortality, nontarget organisms, nutrition assessment, probit analysis, toxicity
Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223 ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolute the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, the fraction F6 was eluted and sub fraction fractions F6c (50 ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 also responsible for developmental changes in S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival.