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Integrated water resources management for emergency situations: A case study of Macau

Huang, JianYong, Lou, Inchio, Li, YingXia
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2016 v.50 pp. 72-78
case studies, freshwater, issues and policy, models, rain, tides, water conservation, water reuse, water supply, China, Macau
Integrated urban water management (IUWM) is a useful tool that can be used to alleviate water resource shortages in developing regions like Macau, where 98% of the raw water comes from mainland China. In Macau, scarce water resources deteriorate rapidly in emergency situations, such as accidental chemical spills upstream of the supply reservoir or salty tides. During these times, only the water from the two freshwater reservoirs in Macau can be used. In this study, we developed urban water management optimization models that integrated the raw water supply from the two reservoirs with various proposed governmental policies (wastewater reuse, rainwater collection, and water saving). We then determined how various water resource strategies would influence the urban water supply in Macau in emergency situations. Our results showed that, without imported raw water, the water supply from only the two Macau reservoirs would last for 7.95days. However, when all the government policies were included in the model, the supply could be extended to 13.79days. Out of the three non-conventional water resources, wastewater reuse is the most beneficial for increasing the Macau water supply, and rainwater collection also has great potential.