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One-pot fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Nicandra physalodes: A novel route for mosquito vector control with moderate toxicity on non-target water bugs

Govindarajan, Marimuthu, Khater, Hanem F., Panneerselvam, Chellasamy, Benelli, Giovanni
Research in veterinary science 2016 v.107 pp. 95-101
Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, Diplonychus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Nicandra physalodes, X-ray diffraction, aquatic habitat, aquatic organisms, insect larvae, insect vectors, larvicides, lethal concentration 50, nanocrystals, nanosilver, parasites, scanning electron microscopy, silver, toxicity, transmission electron microscopy, vector control
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors for important diseases and parasites causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic pesticides against Culicidae leads to resistance and environmental concerns. Therefore, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. In this research, Nicandra physalodes-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was conducted, in order to control larval populations of three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterized using UV–vis spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM analyses. Ag NPs were highly toxic against the three mosquito vectors. Maximum efficacy was detected against A. stephensi (LC50=12.39μg/mL), followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.61μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.79μg/mL). Interestingly, Ag NPs were safer for the non-target aquatic organism Diplonychus indicus sharing the same aquatic habitats of mosquito larvae. LC50 and LC90 values were 1032.81 and 19,076.59μg/mL, respectively. Overall, our results highlight that N. physalodes-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising for development of eco-friendly larvicides against mosquito vectors, with negligible toxicity against non-target aquatic water bugs.