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Fish semen proteomics — New opportunities in fish reproductive research
- Ciereszko, A., Dietrich, M.A., Nynca, J.
- Aquaculture 2017 v.472 pp. 81-92
- biochemical pathways, biomarkers, blood, cryopreservation, energy metabolism, fish, hatcheries, hematologic tests, human resources, males, oxidative stress, proteomics, reproduction, reproductive system, researchers, seminal plasma, seminal plasma proteins, spermatozoa
- Proteomic approaches have recently been introduced to studies of male fish reproduction, providing new insights into the functioning of the reproductive system. Numerous previously unknown proteins have been identified, allowing for the comprehensive characterization of the mechanisms involved in the protection of spermatozoa in seminal plasma, especially against oxidative stress and microbial attack. The mechanisms responsible for supporting sperm survival during storage, especially the maintenance of sperm membranes, were also identified. Metabolic pathways, especially those related to sperm energy and metabolism, have been better characterized. A comprehensive comparative analysis of blood and seminal plasma proteins allows for a better understanding of the mechanisms of blood–testis barrier and the specificity of protein profiles of fish semen. Knowledge concerning the cryogenic damage done to sperm proteins has been greatly improved.This is the first review to cover current knowledge of fish semen proteomics, based primarily on results published during the last two years. This new information has been integrated into the existing knowledge base of basic and applied research concerning fish reproduction. The identification of several new proteins sheds new light on the biochemistry and physiology of seminal plasma and spermatozoa, and allows for a better understanding of the relationship between blood and seminal plasma. The discovery of a plethora of newly identified proteins that are released from spermatozoa in response to cryogenic damage contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cryopreservation. It also provides researchers with a list of potential biomarkers that are important for the evaluation of cryopreservation success. This study is relevant both for many types of scientists, including fish biologists and cryobiologists, and for practitioners, including fish management and hatchery personnel.