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Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of microcystin-LR and antioxidant responses in male red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

Yuan, Julin, Gu, Zhimin, Zheng, Yao, Zhang, Yingying, Gao, Jiancao, Chen, Shu, Wang, Zaizhao
Aquatic toxicology 2016 v.177 pp. 8-18
Procambarus clarkii, antioxidants, catalase, enzyme activity, freshwater, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, heat stress, hepatopancreas, hepatotoxicity, high performance liquid chromatography, intestines, males, messenger RNA, microcystin-LR, muscles, superoxide dismutase, tissues, toxicity testing, transcription (genetics), water temperature
MC-LR is one of major microcystin isoforms with potent hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we aim to: 1) explore the dynamics of MC-LR accumulation and elimination in different tissues of male red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii; 2) reveal the mechanisms underlying hepatic antioxidation and detoxification. In the semi-static toxicity tests under the water temperature of 25±2°C, P. clarkii were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10 and 100μg/L MC-LR for 7days for accumulation and subsequently relocated to freshwater for another 7days to depurate MC-LR. MC-LR was measured in the hepatopancreas, intestine, abdominal muscle and gill by HPLC. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), content of glutathione (GSH), and transcripts of Mn-sod, cat, gpx1, Mu-gst, heat shock protein90 (hsp90), hsp70 and hsp60 in hepatopancreas were detected. The results showed that P. clarkii accumulated more MC-LR in intestine, and less in abdominal muscle and gill during accumulation period and eliminated the toxin more quickly in gill and abdominal muscle, and comparatively slowly in intestine during depuration period. The fast increase of SOD and CAT activities at early stage, subsequent decrease at later stage of accumulation period and then fast increase during depuration period were partially consistent with the transcriptional changes of their respective genes. GPx was activated by longer MC-LR exposure and gpx1 mRNA expression showed uncoordinated regulation pattern compared with its enzyme. Hsp genes were up-regulated when P. clarkii was exposed to MC-LR.