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Risk factors related to Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats
- Deng, Huifang, Dam-Deisz, Cecile, Luttikholt, Saskia, Maas, Miriam, Nielen, Mirjam, Swart, Arno, Vellema, Piet, van der Giessen, Joke, Opsteegh, Marieke
- Preventive veterinary medicine 2016 v.124 pp. 45-51
- Toxoplasma gondii, animal age, antibodies, blood sampling, blood serum, cats, dairy goats, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, farmers, farms, goat diseases, herds, human health, models, questionnaires, risk factors, seroprevalence, Europe
- Toxoplasma gondii can cause disease in goats, but also has impact on human health through food-borne transmission. Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats and to identify the risk factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence. Fifty-two out of ninety approached farmers with indoor-kept goats (58%) participated by answering a standardized questionnaire and contributing 32 goat blood samples each. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii SAG1 antibodies by ELISA and results showed that the frequency distribution of the log10-transformed OD-values fitted well with a binary mixture of a shifted gamma and a shifted reflected gamma distribution. The overall animal seroprevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.7–14.9%), and at least one seropositive animal was found on 61.5% (95% CI: 48.3–74.7%) of the farms. To evaluate potential risk factors on herd level, three modeling strategies (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated) were compared. The negative binomial model fitted the data best with the number of cats (1–4 cats: IR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; >=5 cats: IR: 14.2, 95% CI: 3.9–51.1) and mean animal age (IR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1) related to herd positivity. In conclusion, the ELISA test was 100% sensitive and specific based on binary mixture analysis. T. gondii infection is prevalent in indoor housed Dutch dairy goats but at a lower overall animal level seroprevalence than outdoor farmed goats in other European countries, and cat exposure is an important risk factor.