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Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity
- Brioudes, Aurélie, Gummow, Bruce
- Preventive veterinary medicine 2016 v.129 pp. 13-22
- animal health, animal products, avian influenza, biosecurity, commercial farms, control methods, developing countries, disease surveillance, farmers, foot-and-mouth disease, markets, pathogens, poultry, poultry industry, risk analysis, risk factors, swine, trade, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
- Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal trade activity was identified as a major risk pathway. Activities such as awareness campaigns for pig and poultry farmers regarding disease reporting, biosecurity measures or danger of swill feeding and training of biosecurity officers in basic animal health and import-associated risks are recommended to prevent and limit the spread of pathogens within the PICTs.