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Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin

Gómez-Sala, Beatriz, Herranz, Carmen, Díaz-Freitas, Belén, Hernández, Pablo E., Sala, Ana, Cintas, Luis M.
International journal of food microbiology 2016 v.223 pp. 41-49
Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Listeria, Merluccius merluccius, application methods, bacteriocins, biopreservation, cell free system, economic valuation, fermenters, fish products, fishing boats, freeze drying, hake, ice, ingredients, lactic acid bacteria, markets, plate count, polystyrenes, prices, protective effect, sensory properties, storage time, Spain
In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0–2°C, for 14days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0–2°C at the Marín retail fish market for 14days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient, respectively, bacterial counts were significantly lower than those of the untreated control batches, both for young hake and megrim. In addition, the presence of Listeria spp. in megrim was inhibited in both analyses. The effect of protective culture or food ingredient on the sensory characteristics of fish was evaluated by an official fish appraiser from the Marín retail fish market, who concluded that all the biopreserved batches were worth a higher price in the fish market than the respective control batches, demonstrating that the multibacteriocinogenic strain of marine origin Lb. curvatus BCS35 may be considered as a suitable candidate for its application as fresh fish biopreservative.