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Electrical impedance spectroscopy: A tool to investigate the responses of one halophyte to different growth and stress conditions

Ben Hamed, Karim, Zorrig, Walid, Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem
Computers and electronics in agriculture 2016 v.123 pp. 376-383
dielectric spectroscopy, electrical resistance, halophytes, hydroponics, impedance, leaves, salinity, salt stress, sand, sodium chloride, soil
In order to evaluate the reliability and the practical use of the electrical impedance spectroscopy method applied in the area of salt resistance, electrical impedance spectra were compared in the leaves of halophyte plants cultivated under different growth conditions (biotope versus controlled conditions, hydroponic versus sand system cultures) and different salt stress conditions. The kinetic of impedance parameters was also monitored under short term salinity. The spectra of electrical impedance of leaves under biotope and laboratory conditions showed difference in the electrical response of Cakile maritima in the biotope and laboratory conditions. The response of electrical impedance parameters to salinity was also different in the hydroponic system when compared to the soil one, indicating more stressful conditions in solution culture. The amplitude of the curves of impedance spectrometry decreased when plants were stressed comparatively to their controls, with the highest electrical resistance in the presence of 50 and 100mM while the lowest value was at 400mM NaCl. The electrical resistance increased at an early stage after the application of salt stress reaching maximal value 180min later, before it rapidly declined thereafter. The observed peak can translate a signal, that the plant could have received, which triggers a cascade of metabolic reactions allowing the plant to regain its hydro-ionic balance. In conclusion, electrical impedance spectroscopy can be used to quickly compare different growth conditions as well as different salinity treatments. This method can also separate between the osmotic and the ionic phases of the response to salt stress.