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Lemon oil nanoemulsions fabricated with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 using phase inversion temperature method

Su, Dan, Zhong, Qixin
Journal of food engineering 2016 v.171 pp. 214-221
biopolymers, droplets, flavor, lemon oil, nanoemulsions, oils, polysorbates, rheology, sodium caseinate, sodium chloride, surfactants, temperature, turbidity
The phase inversion temperature (PIT) method has been studied to fabricate nanoemulsions using non-ionic synthetic surfactants, but not food biopolymers. The objective of this study was to investigate the PIT formation of lemon oil nanoemulsions by combinations of Tween 20 and sodium caseinate (NaCas). The emulsions prepared with combinations of NaCas and Tween 20 had lower turbidity and smaller droplets than those prepared with one surfactant, and the co-adsorption of NaCas on oil droplets decreased with increasing Tween 20 concentration. Negative and positive impacts on nanoemulsion formation were observed at 0.2–0.4 and 0.6–0.8 mM NaCl, respectively. Turbidity and rheology results showed the PIT between 80 and 90 °C. The nanoemulsions prepared with 2% NaCas, 0.4–1.2% Tween 20 and 1.5% lemon oil had a volume-area mean diameter of around 100 nm and were stable during 15-day storage. Therefore, NaCas can be used to partially replace synthetic surfactants to prepare flavor oils nanoemulsions using the PIT method.