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Effectiveness of imidacloprid in combination with a root nitrogen fertilizer applied to tomato seedlings against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
- Sun, Yuan-Xing, Liu, Tong-Xian
- Crop protection 2016 v.80 pp. 56-64
- Bemisia tabaci, Hemiptera, active ingredients, adults, boron, calcium, cost effectiveness, egg production, field crops, greenhouses, growing media, imidacloprid, leaves, magnesium, mortality, nitrogen fertilizers, nymphs, pests, seedlings, subsurface irrigation, tomatoes
- The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (biotype B) is a worldwide pest of vegetables and field crops. We tested the efficacy of imidacloprid (IM) with a root fertilizer ‘Root Feed (RF)’ (9% N, 7% Ca, 1.5% Mg and 0.1% B) sub-irrigated in the growing medium against the whitefly on tomato. Tomato seedlings (3–4 true leaves) were treated with 0, 3, 6 or 12 mg active ingredient (a.i.) seedling−1 of IM and with RF (0, 0.02, 0.04 or 0.08 ml seedling−1). The efficacy of 12 mg IM seedling−1 was further evaluated in the greenhouse for 60 days. The survival of B. tabaci adults, nymphs, and egg production were negatively affected by the treatments in a dosage-dependent manner. Treatment of 12 mg IM seedling−1 caused >60% adult and nymph mortality 50 days after treatment (DAT). The active ingredient of IM in tomato leaves also increased with the increase of IM dosage. The RF exhibited a limited effect on B. tabaci. However, the mortality of whitefly adults and nymphs treated with RF (0.02 or 0.04 ml seedling−1) positively interacted with IM, and was greater than IM alone. In the greenhouse, 12 mg IM seedling−1 greatly reduced the number of whitefly adults and increased the dry weight of the tomato plants at 30 DAT. In conclusion, application of 12 mg IM seedling−1 on tomato seedlings before transplanting effectively controled B. tabaci for up to 50 days, and the efficacy of IM combined with 0.02 ml RF seedling−1 performed even better. This could be a cost-effective method for managing B. tabaci on tomato and other vegetables.