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Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress and role of dietary factors in gasoline station attendants

Costa, Chiara, Ozcagli, Eren, Gangemi, Silvia, Schembri, Federico, Giambò, Federica, Androutsopoulos, Vasilis, Tsatsakis, Aristidis, Fenga, Concettina
Food and chemical toxicology 2016 v.90 pp. 30-35
advanced glycation end products, advanced oxidation protein products, antioxidants, benzene, biochemical pathways, biomarkers, blood serum, correlation, flavonoids, fruits, gasoline, lycopene, males, metabolites, oxidants, oxidative stress, protective effect, reactive oxygen species, resveratrol, screening, toxicology, vegetable consumption, vegetables
Exposure to benzene promotes oxidative stress through the production of ROS, which can damage biological structures with the formation of new metabolites which can be used as markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance.This study aims to assess modifications in circulating levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in a group of gasoline station attendants exposed to low-dose benzene and to evaluate the influence of antioxidant food intake on these biomarkers of oxidative stress. The diet adopted by the population examined consisted of compounds belonging to the classes of terpenoids, stilbenes and flavonoids, notably resveratrol, lycopene and apigenin.Ninety one gasoline station attendants occupationally exposed to benzene and 63 unexposed male office workers were recruited for this study. Urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) concentration, determined to assess individual exposure level, resulted significantly higher in exposed workers.In subjects exposed to benzene, we observed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ROMs and AOPP levels, which were also negatively correlated with fruit and vegetables consumption. By contrast, AGE did not show a significant increase and consequently any relation with antioxidant food intake. Only ROMs, representing a global biomarker of oxidative status, resulted correlated to t,t-MA levels (p < 0.01), probably due to low-dose exposure.Increase of ROS induced by reactive benzene metabolites may promote specific biochemical pathways with a major production of AOPP, which seem to represent a more sensitive biochemical marker of oxidative stress in workers exposed to benzene compared to AGE. Furthermore, this is the first study demonstrating ROMs increment in subject exposed to benzene. These biomarkers may be useful for screening purposes in gasoline station workers and other subjects exposed to low-dose benzene. Moreover, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables demonstrated an inverse association with the levels of oxidative stress markers, suggesting a protective role of antioxidant food intake in workers exposed to oxidant agents.